Posted 24 July 2009 - 13:55
Posted 24 July 2009 - 16:09
To all, I am back, drinking morning coffee and ready to answer the questions that I left you with on Thursday.
Approaching the answers as a counterclock wise rotation(Robinson, Bell, MD, Etc.) Q?1 was when can you expect to find yourself in a stuck left pedal(High Power) situation? After take-off, especially a Max performance TO (the most stuck pedal) as you clear the obstacle and reduce power(Bingo) ,continue to fly, planning a low and slow pattern with an approach to match the departure angle. This is a Match the Power setting approach to a low hover and then set the aircraft down on the desired spot. The aircraft may be turning at a very slow rate or NOT at touchdown. I want to mention here that Bell "Prohibits" the use of throttle via the flight manual in these situations!!!! Not necessary anyway.
Q?2 was when to expect a stuck right pedal? This is the situation that I find pilots are not ready for! And this is the most critical to always be ready for!!! At the bottom end of a normal approach as you start to apply power (Bingo), now you are close to the ground, you better know to go around keeping the aircraft low and slow (300' & 60kts)or what works for your aircraft. Now picture this, making an approach to the Numbers of a runway as your intended touch down point. When you arrive at the end of the downwind leg and turn base continue turning to the Numbers. This sets you up on a 45 degree flight path to the numbers and as you lower collective the nose moves left. Fly a normal approach to a hovering altitude over the numbers and as you apply power the nose moves right. When aligned with the centerline complete a hovering auto with no ground run.
Now for clockwise rotating aircraft (I just transitioned back to Eurocopter after 10 years in a Bell 407), this should not be confusing because all you need to know is what to do in the initial situation and both are continue to fly. You have time to move the collective up and down a little to orient yourself as to which way the nose will move. But it is still a High Power Stuck or Low Power Stuck!
In much of the discussion here I got the feeling that pilots were training for these situations by being in Cruise flight and then trying to do a stuck left or right pedal maneuver by arbitralily fixing the pedal position. The procedures will be learned and remembered if practiced in a "Real" situation scenario. Know when to expect the situation in actual flight maneuvers and be prepared for them.
The Low Power stuck pedal at the bottom end of an approach is the one that will ruin your day as many pilots in our 135 training want to put the aircraft on the ground immediately. This will never be successfull. Also, FYI, the reason for the low and slow mentality is to not take the flight parameters beyond where we need to for the maneuver. Why climb to 500' and 100kts? Only to have to transition back and be more out of trim(uncomfortable)!
Now for 2 War stories, one of my pilots was taking a 135 & 141 ride combo with a FAA Inspector from a different FSDO. He had the pilot demo stuck left and right in an R22 and had me present during the oral critique. He told me that I should train my pilots to manipulate the throttle in piston helos and not do it the "Easy Way". I asked him to explain to me which was more difficult and less successful? He stated that twisting the throttle and trying to maintain RPM and directional control was obviously more difficult. So, I asked him how comfortable would a pax be in the method my pilot demonstrated and he said "Very". He never did see the point!
Story #2,I have attended Bell School every year in a 206L or 407 for the last 20yrs at least once or twice a year. All of the long time Instructors know me and it is always like old home week with them. One year they are busy so I get one of the maintenance pilots that fills in. He gives me a stuck right on downwind, as I reach Base I turn direct to the approach end of lane #1. He now broadcasts that we are going to lane #1 and supposed to be doing stuck pedal but he has no idea what the pilot is doing!!!!! This kinda pisses me off because all of the other Instructors know who is in my aircraft. Well, I fly the maneuver and on the ground he now transmits, "I just learned a new way to handle stuck right pedal". So, easy procedures, no run ons with forward speed or roll overs. Be trained and prepared mentally. Fly Safe, Mike
Edited by Mikemv, 24 July 2009 - 20:04.
Posted 24 July 2009 - 18:44
Just remember this: airspeed is your friend. A little bit of airspeed works wonders. If you put your pedals together in the hover, the machine spins fast enough to glue your eyeballs to the front window. But with just 10- 15 kt, it becomes a simple run-on.
If you have a jam in flight, set yourself up for a long shallow final with whatever wind is available ON YOUR LEFT. Start to slow down until the nose is about 30 degrees left of your flight path. Hold that speed until you are down to 2' agl, then very gradually reduce the speed. It will want to sink, and when you raise the lever, the nose will come right. (But don't let the nose come up! Your speed will bleed off too fast and the nose snaps away to the right.)
If the nose is still left, it means you can slow down a bit more. Eventually you will reach a speed where the last pull on the lever has made the nose straight with your flight path, and you run it onto the ground.
If you missed the nose being straight and it is now heading to the right, crack the throttle to straighten it and run on.
For a pedal jammed to the right of hover position, the run-on speed will be higher than if it is to the left.
If the T/R has failed completely, it is auto time.
Posted 24 July 2009 - 20:23
I have to disagree strongly with your procedure. Not that it is wrong but more so beacuse it requires touchdown with forward speed when you have directional controls that are fixed. You state that if you get slow and close to the ground to be moving the throttle on or off as directed. What is the response time for that? Also, you start out with stuck right pedal prior to being in the position where it is most critical, at the application of power. Why would anyone want to try to run an aircraft on the ground when there is a simple procedure to land with no forward speed? Also, when was the last time anyone practiced the procedure you mentioned and got it absolutely correct the "First" time?
There are a lot of inexperienced pilots reading these posts. Are any of them confident they can run the aircraft on and have it straight? Are their instructors capable of doing this the first time?
Now if you say you can do it "every" time when surprised that it is stuck, you must be practicing them often to maintain such proficiency. Also, what do you do with the throttle in a turbine aircraft that prohibits the use of the throttle for your procedure?
Stuck pedal conditions are not difficult to handle if you know what to do when they appear! Set up a landing with no forward speed and do not chance a roll over. Mike
Posted 08 August 2009 - 20:54
I'm not at home for a few days but I have a really good stuck pedal explanation on my computer at home called "Lucky left, rotten right" which I will post on Monday.
The goal is to arrive at hover height with no airspeed and then do the Left or Right procedure depending on circumstance. For stuck right a steeper slowish approach works because little power is used right to the end of the flare. After achieving hover height with no airspeed roll throttle all the way off and perform engine failure in the hover, "hover auto". For stuck left a shallower faster approach can be used because applying power helps, but in any case arrive at a no airspeed hover and then pull power to counter act left yaw. This might make you go up to a high hover but manipulating collective pulls with yaw you can work down onto the ground. In a Bell 206 using the collective beep range to lower RRPM will get you down from a high hover.
The neumonic for throttle (sp?) is Left Leave It, Right Roll It, after arriving in the hover. I haven't flown a Eurocopter product yet but it sounds like the procedure is quite similar.
Of course complete tail rotor failure is Auto time.
As Eric mentioned keep the wind on your left (for stuck right) it helps counteract right yaw.
Run ons will work, but the risk of rolling is way greater. In Canada stuck pedals are introduced around 50 hours and expected to be proficient by the 75 hour mark. The flight test requires a demonstration of both Left and Right at the 100 hour commercial exam. It probably takes around 2 to 3 hours total to get good at them but best done in 15 to 20 minute chunks because it's definitely the highest stress procedure.
Will post the written procedure I have on Monday.
When life's path is steep keep your mind even.
Posted 12 August 2009 - 21:15
Will post the written procedure I have on Monday.
Posted 15 August 2009 - 23:08
Tradgically a machine went down in the Fraser River 100 km east from here yesterday fighting the huge Lilloet fire and the pilot didn't make it to shore. RIP
Here is the 2 page Stuck Pedal Procedure I have. For Left pedal it's not necessary to run it on. Careful arrival at the hover and small RRPM reduction will make a nice hover landing. The Right pedal requires a hover auto after arriving at hover altitude with no airspeed.
I seem to recall the good old lucky left - rotten right method for stuck pedal.
Are they still teaching stuck – restricted pedals this way or have they redesigned the wheel again?
FOR WHAT IT IS WORTH AND NOT TO REPLACE INSTRUCTION IN YOUR ACTUAL A/C.
This is my remembrance of the patter:
If you are able to control the A/C you have time to take a look at the problem while proceeding to a suitable run on area- check that nothing is obstructing pedal movement (aside from the instructor). - Attain 70-80 KTS - (we are talking 206 - 205 - 212 here) and level flight.
Look at which side the ball is on if not centered. Go to the opposite side - ball centered or left go to the right - you have a rotten right which will require a LOW Power applied landing - the more the ball is off center the more exiting the problem of apt to be.
If the ball is off to the right - go left - you have a LUCKY LEFT and a landing with higher power applied is possible - once again the more the ball is out the (Better) worse the problem.
Having done this a plan is required
ROTTEN RIGHT LUCKY LEFT
Being as you have no “Pause”, “Exit” or “Save Game” function you are going to have to do something.
Actions such as whining on the radio (aside from the gathering of interested spectators, some with unhelpful advice, some with cameras and still others with forms to be filled out once the motion stops), cursing your career choices, and prayer, while comforting, are not immediately helpful.
Let's deal with Lucky Left - more power is going to keep the nose straight.
Perhaps there is enough left pedal to align the A/C with the runway for a low speed run on.
Perhaps there is so much left pedal that a hover can be attained- this would be nice.
Perhaps however the pedal is stuck at a position which would give you a left turn even in the hover.
Well, a lower RPM will reduce TR effectiveness, so once arriving on final approach let's reduce throttle (S) to reduce RPM to the bottom of the green Arc.
Let's also assume you have a good run on area.
Make very sure that the throttle friction(s) are set as to allow free movement – the inability to move the throttle (S) at the bottom can lead to fascinating problems.
Fly a normal approach with the nose off to the left; slowly reduce the airspeed to arrive over the end of the area at 30 Kts and 2 - 5 feet. If, on initial approach, the nose starts right as you decelerate and pull power you may have misdiagnosed the problem and are dealing with a rotten right. Go around early and rethink.
Over the runway: Put the helicopter in a 5-10 Deg nose up attitude and let it decelerate, as it does apply collective to keep the a/c just off the ground.
As the helicopter decelerates the power applied should cause the nose to align (come right) with the runway. When aligned allow the a/c to touch down and come to a stop. Then slowly lower the collective while closing the throttle(S). Once aligned don’t allow the A/C to decelerate further or the nose will go right – if this happens close the throttle as required to keep aligned – accept the run on.
If the A/C comes to a hover slowly lower the collective to land, if needed open / close the throttle a bit to keep the nose straight.
If the a/c comes to a very low hover and the nose starts left twist the throttle towards open reasonably quickly - this should cause the nose to stop or even swing right - put the darn thing down.
If all this is unsuccessful and the nose is still turning left pull collective while slowly closing the throttle - RPM and tail rotor effectiveness will decrease and should stop the rotation - if not allow the a/c to touch down before the rpm decreases too much. A little rotation on touchdown should not be a problem if you are in a stable hover over the mythical "Hard Smooth Surface''
If the problem is a lot of left pedal a right xwind will help. Don't put it at more than 45 degrees or you could end up downwind if the a/c rotates left.
If you have full left pedal in when it stuck you are going to need to pull a lot of power to stop the rotation. Good example is a student and instructor doing outo circuits – Student rotates and applies max power to attain a fast climb back to auto altitude. A lot of Left pedal is applied – cruel instructor freezes pedal – A/C now has enough left pedal to spin left like a top in the hover at the low gross weight. “Houston- We have a problem!”
Let’s visit the rotten right scenario:
Once again the more the ball is deflected the worse the problem is likely to be.
Set yourself up at 1000 ft for a steep approach at normal approach speed – (60 -70 Knots in a 212.) If not sure of yourself start your approach even higher to allow lots of time to set yourself up or go around – don’t let the speed drop too far before making a decision to go around.
Make very sure that the throttle frictions are set as to allow free movement – the inability to close the throttle (S) at the bottom can lead to fascinating even mesmerizing problems.
Lower the collective until the nose is left of your approach track.
If you get the collective all the way down and your nose is still right you may need to close the throttle and do an autorotation. Before doing this – perhaps you misdiagnosed the problem – if able go around and rethink.
We will assume that the nose came left.
Continue the approach to the runway. Maintain your speed.
Do a reasonably hard flare at the bottom. This should require the collective to be lowered further and the nose to go further left. As you decelerate and pull collective to arrest your rate of sink the nose will start coming right. Co-ordinate your activities in order to set the a/c down as the nose aligns with the runway and close the throttle as necessary to remain aligned with the runway.
Remember to level the A/C so as not to scrape the tail.
Remember that this is for stuck pedals.
Loss of tail rotor or the drive thereto will probably require an immediate autorotation to whatever destination is immediately below you.
That is another kettle of fish altogether.
When life's path is steep keep your mind even.
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