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Emergencies Guide


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Hey Slick,

 

Looks good ! As I was going thru it I remembered a question I had a while back and since I'm not regularly seeing my instructor for trivial questions I figure I'll throw it out here. When ditching I was wondering why theres no mention if possible to slow the rotor blades prior to left cyclic input. I guess my real question is does stopping the blades without significantly reducing rotor rpm present a large torque issue, ie. broken neck/back etc..? Just thought I'd throw it out there.

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Hey slick,

 

Thanks for the post. It's this kind of info which makes the forum really valuable.

 

Tim, I flew over water sometimes during training and thought about this issue. We were always within gliding distance from shore (legal), but the shore often was to steep to auto onto so ditching in the water close to shore would've been the only option in some spots.

 

My theory. Flare as usual, roll off throttle if not all ready at idle, and ditch left or right as POH indicates. A good strong collective pull at the last seconds will cushion impact and slow RRPM. If the engine isn't driving the blades at impact they will stop much more gently than if the engine is powering them into the water. The machine will flail less making it easier to swim out through twisted moving metal. A helmet would be advisable in this situation, just try to remember to unplug the cord before exiting so you don't get pulled down from your head. CO2 vest good idea, floats even better!

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBQR1KMYHZM...feature=related

Edited by Whistlerpilot
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Engine out auto's. You state the nose will yaw left or right. Since this guide is specific to the R22, the nose will yaw only one direction...left.

 

"Emergency: Vortex Ring State

 

Indications: Pitch and roll oscillations, poor cyclic authority, excessive decent rate, vibration

 

Reaction: Lower collective, 60 knots, full climb power"

 

I guess its sorta implied by the 60 knots comment. But you dont really state..lower collective slightly, forward cyclic to fly out of the VRS. Often times you will be out of it at 30-40 knots forward airspeed, so you can start climbing again. The real key here is forward cyclic to fly out of this mess.

 

GENERALLY speaking, almost every emergency requires you to reduce collective pitch/power.

 

Goldy

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I guess its sorta implied by the 60 knots comment. But you dont really state..lower collective slightly, forward cyclic to fly out of the VRS. Often times you will be out of it at 30-40 knots forward airspeed, so you can start climbing again. The real key here is forward cyclic to fly out of this mess.

 

Definitely emphasize flying out of the vortices, though if you can't go forward won't other directions work as well?

 

HVG

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Definitely emphasize flying out of the vortices, though if you can't go forward won't other directions work as well?

 

HVG

 

 

You beat me to it, I was going to say the same thing. In some cases there maybe an obstruction ahead of you, which case you can just fly out of it in another direction. If you get into while doing a steep approach into a hover hole, well then you are just having a bad day.

Edited by JDHelicopterPilot
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A couple of good indications we commonly use for when to recover from your nose low attitude getting out of SWP: trim strings come alive or any indication of airspeed. By the time you've reacted you've got at least 30 knots. Remember to level the ship so all of your thrust is stopping your descent. Don't keep accelerating as you start to pull pitch. I remember as a student when this idea was stressed in my flight at the safety course. It instantly shaved 100 ft off of my recoveries. That's 100 feet you probably won't have to spare.

 

 

Just a thought about M/R chip or Temp lights: Day or night, get your @#$!! back on the ground. There is no autorotation after a M/R transmission failure. Note - chip lights in the R22 can be extremely dim, enough to be barely visible on a sunny day. However, a dim chip light is NO less serious than a bright one.

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The Stuck Pedal section for Left and Right is not even close. Think about when you will encounter these situations and start your procedures from that point. Neither of these procedures is difficult. What makes them dangerous is not having a knowledge of when you will encounter them and the necessary action to take to set up the successful outcome of the procedure after that. I find that this Stuck Pedal area is one of lack of training/understanding by many pilots/New CFI's that exist. I have a discussion list of Common Shortcomings and False Confidences that I discuss with those of you that fly with me for an extended time. Many of you have had this discussion and know you are now knowledgeable in areas that someone did not train you in.

 

Your owner/mechanic is going to love it when you smash a VSI.

 

I always applaud someones effort for putting these type of things together and then I cringe when I think about new pilots and what they will take away from the items, especially those that are not correct! On the other hand, the discussions that follow clear up a lot of things and help to modify/correct the original document. Mike

Edited by Mikemv
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It's important to emphasize the importance of lowering the collective during the recovery from VRS. I know it was stated here in posts, and the document that was posted, but when teaching it it really needs to be emphasized. Go up and try a recovery WITHOUT lowering the collective, then one WITH it, and you'll see the difference. It seems like some students think that the idea is just to "fly out of it". If you're really in it, it's much tougher to fly out of it without taking pitch out of your main rotor.

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I wasn't really to sure about the stuck pedal senarios, however I pretty much copied them out of the rotorcraft flying handbook.

 

With a counter-clockwise main rotor, torque makes the nose wants to turn clockwise (to the right) if no anti-torque input is made. So, if you had a stuck right pedal and you increase torque by applying power, you will just make condition worse. The remedy is to decrease torque by lowering the collective and entering an auto. With a stuck left pedal, however, as you add power you are counter-acting the left pedal input. Entering an auto with a stuck left pedal will make matters worse because eliminating the torque will make the nose want to turn to the left even more. For a stuck left pedal the remedy is to find the "equilibrium" between the stuck pedal (nose-left tendency) and the amount of power applied (nose-right tendency).

 

It's a good idea to practice stuck pedal approaches and develop an understanding of how to manipulate the aircraft heading by collective/throttle control. It's also good to experience what full left pedal input in an auto looks like - the decent rate is pretty crazy! You can increase the decent rate in an auto by putting the aircraft in a nose-right slip too, it just won't be quite as aggressive.

Edited by heli.pilot
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OK,OK,you guys have me cringing again. There is no need to do an auto from altitude with a stuck pedal. No one really said that here but it was mentioned as a cure for stuck right pedal, it was just not mentioned when to do it. Also, there is never a need with any stuck pedal to RUN the aircraft on the ground. Why would you want forward speed when you do not have full directional control of the aircraft?

 

Everyone follow me thru this and it will be an easy process with any stuck pedal! First off, I always teach in my discussion that stuck right is more dangerous only because of where you will encounter it. Making a normal approach (like we do most times), you will find out you have a stuck right pedal very near the bottom when you start to add power! If you do not know what to do and try to put the aircraft on the ground from this point, you will probably ball it up. Procedure: adding power, you realize it is stuck right, add forward cylic and power and keeping the aircraft relatively low and slow (50/60 & 300') go around and set up for an approach which begins at the downwind to base leg point and fly to the numbers on a 45 degree ground track. The nose will be very far to the left when you reduce power. Plan to decel and be at a hovering altitude as you add power and you can do a low hovering auto or land the aircraft as the nose comes right. THATS IT!!!!! To practice these, do not stick in right pedal on downwind. That is not realistic! Stick the pedals as you are at a low power setting and then apply the procedure at the bottom when you realize it is stuck right. EXPECT it on every approach and it will never take you by surprise.

 

OK, now stuck left! For practice, do a max performance take off (needing the most left pedal), as you clear your obstacle and reduce power you will realize that it is stuck left. Same procedure for a while, relatively low and slow coming around for an steep apporach to the ground. All we have to do here is match the power/torque we had on the aircraft during take off(high) with the approach profile that requires the same power/torque setting(steep). When we terminate at a low hover the aircraft may turn a little in either direction but with collective movement we can stop the turn and then being low just land the aircraft with minimal turning! Ah, minimal turning, if you start to lower the collective and the nose goes left add just a little momentarily to stop it, then land.

 

If you want to get all involved with a high wind condition, then use wind from the opposite side as the pedal is stuck.

 

As one of the first Robinson Instructors and having other re-cip time, we all taught using the throttle to control the direction of the nose and run the aircraft on the ground. Think about this, when was the last itme you did one of these? Do you want to go do one for real now? Do you expect a student ot handle one of these? Digest my procedures above and practice them with a CFI that knows them. Impress your Check Pilot on your 135 ride or interview/pre-hire ride. They are easy and you will never roll the aircraft over by contacting the ground with forward speed with a stuck pedal condition.

 

On the R-22 with a small vertical fin, keep a little speed until you decel near the bottom on the stuck right. For opposite turning rotor sysytems, porcedures are opposite. I have been flying helos for over 41+ years and am nearing the end of a carreer. I have been trying for the last few years to pass on as much of my experience and knowledge to all of you that will carry on in the helicopter industry. Fly safe. Mike

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Mike, after 41 years and thousands of hours.....how many times have you personally encountered a stuck pedal ?

 

Only curious, because you sure dont hear of them very often.

 

Goldy

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Dear Goldy, that is a good question for sure! I personally have never had one. I know of only a few people that have had this condition and KNEW what to do when encountered and it was no big deal and 2 that rolled 'em up trying to run it on. For many years I attended Bell training on an annual basis and it was always taught/tested there. They also said it was not common but important to know. I have had engine failures, hyd. failures, engine, xmsn & tr chip lights, deflated fixed float and numerous other minor stuff, (Can I even remember them all?).

 

Another point, most of the Stuck Pedals were caused by some object in the cockpit that fell/lodged in the pedal mechanism. One was on a LongRanger where the controll tube was installed incorrectly but took awhile to wear to a stuck position. Best to All, Mike

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Anyone see the video of the Enstrom that just recently(2008) had one. Either it was a stuck pedal or loss of tailrotor control. I'll look for the video. Found it!!!!

 

Enstrom stuck Pedal

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Anyone see the video of the Enstrom that just recently(2008) had one. Either it was a stuck pedal or loss of tailrotor control. I'll look for the video. Found it!!!!

 

Enstrom stuck Pedal

 

 

scaaaaary

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scaaaaary

 

 

Hmm, any landing is a good one...easy to quarterback after the fact, but personally I would have preferred changing throttle a bit, which would have straightened out the ship and at that speed...about 15 knots...just take it to a run on landing...thats preferred to doing a 360 that close to the ground.

 

MikeMV- I'm curious Mike, I have always learned to terminate into a run on....last time I did a stuck pedal practice, about a year ago, it was so slow, the run on was about 2-3 feet...but it was still a run on !

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Hmm, any landing is a good one...easy to quarterback after the fact,

 

 

Oh... I wasn't Monday morning quarterbacking... I'm saying that would be a very scary thing to deal with. I might be able to pull that off, but I'd definately have to buy a new set of underware.

 

J-

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Dear Goldy, the way I mentally approach this is: if I have abnormal control function, restricted or lost, then why would I want to approach the ground with forward speed when I can just land the helo with no forward speed and reduce the risk of being slightly sideways or worse? There was a time when I was taught/used a run on procedure also. I learned something better. I think of the currency scenario where you/we have not done a struck pedal run on lately and for most of us this is an every flight reality! So now we have to use our procedure whatever it is (worst is a pilot not having any procedure for this, let alone not in the fore front of his/her mind) I believe a non-current success rate is better for landing without trying to have to coordinate throttle and collective with forward directional control. As stated in a previous post in this thread, the most dangerous time is to find a stuck right pedal at the bottom end of an approach! If you have a procedure that you are current/proficient at then keep that. I offered the procedure that I use for all to see and benefit by. The low number of actual stuck pedal situations is no reason to not have a procedure that you are proficient at. How many engine fires in flight have we heard of but we still have procedures for those and other low occurance emergencies! When I fly with anyone, I ask them to fly to the level of the Certificate that they hold. My mentality is to personally be ready for a check ride at that Certificate level on every flight. Stay current, re-current and on top of things. Best to All, Mike

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How often do you get to practice emergency procedures in an employment situation? I don't suppose working for an ENG or EMS or tour operator you can ask your employer if you can go up and practice some stuck pedals or autos. I imagine they might frown on using their heli for practice. So, how do you stay current on your emergency procedures? I suppose you could go rent an R22 or something, but unless you fly an R22 for employment, that would a waste.

As a CFI or a student, that is what you do on a daily basis. Practice or teach emergency procedures. But, once you find yourself long-lining or GOM how do you stay current?

 

Thanks,

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Everybody is different. I asked a bud of mine who flies ENG in LA how often he gets to practice an auto in his ship. His reply...every day. He wants to stay current, so he does 2 or 3 on every flight. Maybe its moving from 5000 feet to 500 feet, but its an auto.

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Hmm, I never would have thought. I wonder what the owner would think if they knew... Maybe they do know... What about the rest of the crew, I guess if every time I (as a non-pilot) went to work with the pilot, I knew I was going to experience some practice autos I would get used to it.

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Hmm, I never would have thought. I wonder what the owner would think if they knew... Maybe they do know... What about the rest of the crew, I guess if every time I (as a non-pilot) went to work with the pilot, I knew I was going to experience some practice autos I would get used to it.

 

as a pilot and a crew member... i'm very happy when the pilots practice autos. even though we're not allowed to practice dual engine failures, i'm still glad to know that the pilots are staying current on EPs

 

J-

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Hmm, any landing is a good one...easy to quarterback after the fact, but personally I would have preferred changing throttle a bit, which would have straightened out the ship and at that speed...about 15 knots...just take it to a run on landing...thats preferred to doing a 360 that close to the ground.

 

MikeMV- I'm curious Mike, I have always learned to terminate into a run on....last time I did a stuck pedal practice, about a year ago, it was so slow, the run on was about 2-3 feet...but it was still a run on !

 

I put the video on there as an example of what can happen. Who knows the exact situtation the pilot was in. Also, who knows what kind of stuck pedal training the pilot had or how often he practiced.

 

Yeah, when I did them it was also a short run on. These are one of those EP's that happen very rarely and when they do it can be complicated to complete due to the co-ordination, stress and the wide variences one can encounter with a stuck pedal. During my Astar training I was taught to "test it out" more or less by staying at altitude and slowing down and seeing what there is to work with before comiting to the approach.

 

JD

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